Learn the basics of asphalt shingle roofing.
When the time comes to replace your roof, the amount of information available to you can be confusing. A lot of websites and videos talk about it through the detail menu. This article will help you find your way by highlighting the basic steps and explaining the primary purpose of each component of the roof system. This article is not a substitute for live training and we recommend that only competent master roofers undertake roofing shingles. You can contact roofing repair companies.
The next time you read the instructions on the package or watch a handy video on YouTube , you’ll better understand how the shingles are laid.
Here are the basic steps in installing roofing shingles.
In any roofing project, safety always comes first. Working at height involves falling hazards and other safety issues. We recommend that roofing work be done by roof shingle repair roofing companies who know the best ways to lay roofing shingles and have been properly trained in all aspects of roofing safety. In addition, it is important to review applicable building codes and ensure that the roof meets all requirements.
Understanding the physics of the roof slope – how to operate a shingle roof. Roof asphalt shingles simply use the force of gravity to repel rainwater or slush. If the roofing shingles and all the accessory roofing elements are installed and overlapped with this force in mind, the roof succeeds in evacuating the water.
Preparation of the decking. Before starting to install any roofing material, make sure that the roof deck is smooth, properly attached to the roof trusses, dry and free from cracks and holes. If the surface is clean and level, the shingle roof will be smooth and flat when finished.
Performing the pose from the bottom to the top. Not only does it work the bottom to the top of the roof, it must also start with the lowest layer regarding the components of the roof. Certainly, asphalt shingles are the visible part and the first line of defense against bad weather. But, it’s what’s below that really matters. The drip is placed under the ice and water at the eaves and above the ice and water and the membrane underlay on the banks of the roof.
Protection against ice dams on eaves. If you live in an area where winters are cold, you wear boots to protect your feet from ice, wet snow and puddles. Your roof and the house it protects need the same type of protection that can be provided by an ice and water protector . This second material is a thin, self-adhesive membrane that lands on the drip. Of course, the best prevention against ice dams is a properly insulated, ventilated attic and equipped with a vapor barrier. However, a protective membrane against ice dams is an element of the roof system that is wise to install and is probably required by your local building code. This protective membrane against ice and water is usually laid to extend over the ¼ to ¾ inch eaves. To be completely effective, it must go up on the roof at least 24 inches inside the vertical extension of the inside wall. At this point, any rainbow on the roof must also be protected by a flashing, in this case a protective membrane against ice and water. This rubberized asphalt membrane seals the perimeter of the stem of the overlying shingles, adding an extra layer of protection against water penetration.Ice dams are formed when the melted snow flows from the roof to the eaves and freezes again, forcing the water
Underlayment membrane as general secondary roof protection. We must now put the underlayment membrane, in this case a felt saturated with asphalt or a synthetic membrane. Both offer protection under the shingles. Of course, asphalt shingles will be the primary layer of protection against water penetration; but the benefits of laying an underlayment membrane are multiple .The felt is laid in horizontal rows and overlaps the eave protector against ice and water 100 mm (4 in.) And the diaphragm flashing of the valley is 150 mm (6 in.). Note: If your home is located in an area where an ice and water protector is not required, begin installing the underlayment membrane at the eave, extending it over the drip edge. 6 mm to 18 mm (¼ to ¾ inch). Let’s go back to the dripstone at the bottom of the roof. When it goes up along the slopes of the roof, it lands on top of the underlayment membrane, although this seems to contradict the principle of overlap. The installation of the drip over the underlayment membrane provides a clean finish at the edge of the roof and makes the attachment of the underlay membrane more resistant to uplift under the action of the wind. In addition, any rain driven by the wind and falling at the bottom of the slope strikes the upper sole of the drip and therefore, the top of the underlayment membrane, instead of penetrating under the underlay membrane, which could eventually to cause problems.
Covering joints and valleys. Most of the time, the water seeps where the layer of shingles is penetrated, broken or come to the junction of a wall. These specific areas are to be covered by a flashing, this additional layer of material which helps to drain the water down the roof. The valleys can be open or closed. The open valleys are not covered with shingles, while closed valleys are not covered. If it is intended that your roof is open valleys, we recommend this, it is necessary at this stage, cover them with a metal preformed width and resistant to corrosion. The closed valleys are covered when laying shingles. In order for the roof to exhibit longer life performance, we strongly recommend open metal valuing. It is necessary to complete the laying of the underlayment membrane and the valley flashing before laying the shingles. The recommended flashing material is 28 gauge galvanized metal or equivalent material, resistant to corrosion and stains (check with local building codes). Center a 914 mm (36 “) wide ice and water barrier membrane over the valley and temporarily nail it to one side. Loosen the film on the back with care and lay the tape, making sure to smooth any wrinkling. Start at the eaves and overlap the strips by at least 150 mm (6 in.). Remove the temporary nails. Center 24 “pre-finished galvanized 24-gauge galvanized metal into the valley and attach it to the sides only with just enough nails to hold it in place. Overlap each piece of metal by at least 150 mm (6 in.) And spread asphaltic paste under each overlapping section. Tie two cords along the entire length of the valley, spaced 150 mm (6 in.) At the top, increasing the spacing 3 mm (1/8 in) to 300 mm (12 in.) Down to a maximum of 200 mm (8 inches). Place the shingles over the valley flashing, cut off the ends at the chalk line and nail the shingles at least 50 mm (2 in.) From the chalk line. Cut a 50mm (2 “) triangle from the top corner to direct the water to the valley, then wrap the weather side of each shingle in a 75mm (3”) slab of asphalt. It is essential to spaced 150 mm (6 in.) at the top, increasing the spacing from 3 mm (1/8 in) to every 300 mm (12 in) down to a maximum of 200 mm (8 in). Place the shingles over the valley flashing, cut off the ends at the chalk line and nail the shingles at least 50 mm (2 in.) From the chalk line. Cut a 50mm (2 “) triangle from the top corner to direct the water to the valley, then wrap the weather side of each shingle in a 75mm (3”) slab of asphalt. It is essential to spaced 150 mm (6 in.) at the top, increasing the spacing from 3 mm (1/8 in) to every 300 mm (12 in) down to a maximum of 200 mm (8 in). Place the shingles over the valley flashing, cut the ends to the chalk line and nail the shingles at least 50 mm (2 in.) From the chalk line. Cut a 50mm (2 “) triangle from the top corner to direct the water to the valley, and then wrap the weather side of each shingle in a 75mm (3”) slab of asphalt. It is essential to Cut a 50mm (2 “) triangle from the top corner to direct the water to the valley, then wrap the weather side of each shingle in a 75mm (3”) slab of asphalt. It is essential to cut a 50mm (2 “) triangle from the top corner to direct the water to the valley, then wrap the weather side of each shingle in a 75mm (3”) slab of asphalt. It is essential to install flashing around plumbing columns and attic vents, as these are the most common penetrations on the roof. Also install metal flashing at intersections of shingles and walls or chimneys. Ice and water protection membranes are good hardening materials and help protect areas around skylights, skylights, turbines and delicate roof areas. Install the flashings following the shingle installation procedure to protect the joint areas.
Roof plans at the junction of vertical walls at the end of a row of shingles are protected by metal flashing at least 125 mm (5 in) high and 125 mm (5 in) wide. When installing new shingles, each shingle row is covered with step flashing.
Metal flashing shingles
Two simple rules must be observed:
- Each flashing must overlap the one below it by at least 75 mm (3 in.), but it must not be visible below the top overlap.
- Each step flashing shall be coated with 75 mm (3 in.) Wide asphalt mastic and nailed in place. Then, the end of each shingle overlapping a stepped flashing must also be embedded in pasty coating.
Metal flashing shingles are rectangular, approximately 250 mm (10 in) long and at least 50 mm (2 in) wider than the face of the shingle used. For example, if a metal flashing with shingles is used with a 143 mm (5 5/8 “) shingle (such as traditional 3-legged shingles), the flashing size will be 250 mm x 200 mm. (10 in. X 8 in.) This length of 250 mm (10 in) is folded in half, so that 125 mm (5 in) will go up the surface of the wall and the other 125 mm (5 in) will rest on the decking of the roof. Note: Other step flashing dimensions are also acceptable. With regard to Cambridge shingle and its wider 5/8 “(150 mm) seam, a 250 mm x 200 mm (10 in. X 8 in.) Flashing is very suitable, given that mm (8 inches), it is at least 50 mm (2 in.) wider than the size of the shingle. However, with respect to the Crowne Slate shingle and its wider 250 mm (10 in.) Gap, the flashing will have to measure 250 mm x 300 mm (10 in. X 12 in.).
To place the flashing shingle on the first row, place it on the end of the starter strip, so that the tab of the end shingle covers it completely. Attach the horizontal flange to the decking with two nails. Do not attach the flashing shingle to the vertical wall. The flashing shingle must be able to move independently of any differential expansion and contraction that may occur between the roof deck and the wall. Install the second stepped flashing shingle on the first row end shingle 143 mm (5 5/8 “) above the lower edge of the exposed asphalt shingle.
Make sure the tab of the second row shingle covers it completely. Fix the horizontal flange to the roof. The second row and successive rows are laid so that the end shingles are covered with flashing as in the previous rows.
Shingles on the ‘surface’ of the roof. The preparation is complete. Now is the time to learn how to put shingles on a roof. Whatever the type or style of shingles you choose, the process is much the same as the one we mentioned earlier: you start at the bottom and you work overlapping up the roof by completing each row before move on to the next. To begin, before placing the shingles on the surface (“surface” means here the large area of the roof limited by the eaves, the ridge and the angles of slope), it is important to put a preliminary rank of shingles of departure, made especially for this purpose. You can also cut standard shingles and make this type of shingle yourself, both of which play a critical role in the eaves. These shingles serve as a point of adhesion for the first row of shingles, in addition to provide protection against water penetration at both shingle joints and cuts. Roofing repair companies often recommend and use tees along the banks of the roof to obtain a straight edge from which all rows of the surface can begin. In addition, these departure strips increase the wind resistance of the roofing system to the shore. It is essential to follow the instructions of the manufacturer of a specific shingle because the shingles do not all have the same shear (the part of the shingle visible once it is laid), the same offset (the lateral distance between the joints of the successive rows) and / or the same location for the nails. Problems can arise if the bucket is too much or not visible enough, or if the shifting is not sufficient in the successive rows of shingles. The nails should be planted in the right place so that the nail heads are at the right place close to the shingle and not sunk into the shingle. Proper nailing is essential for the system to withstand the wind. The proper positioning of the nails is also a requirement for the limited warranty coverage. In the case of closed valleys, the shingles are laid in rows and cover the valley. The most common closed valley is the “closed valley covered”: the shingles are placed over the entire roof surface on one side of the valley first and each shingle row extends at least 300 mm (12 in.) above the median line of the valley. Then the shingles are placed on the other side of the valley and the shingle at the end of each row of the center line of the valley is cut 50 mm (2 in.).
Hips and ridge. The last shingle has been nailed and you can see the hips and ridge, the finishing line of the roof. When you put the shingles from the surface to the top of the roof, you cannot simply “bend” them to the ridge. You must use individual ridge shingles that straddle the ridge and drain water along either side of the ridge.
Several ridge shingles are offered on the market. Here again, the laying procedure must follow the same fundamental principle of overlap. As for hips, start at the bottom and work on a rising slope. Since ridge boards are on a horizontal plane, the rising slope principle does not apply. The ridge shingles are therefore laid as follows: start at the end of the ridge facing the direction of the prevailing wind. On hips, it is also acceptable to install ridge shingles starting at each end from the top and laying the last shingle in the middle of the ridge. This last ridge shingle must be nailed in place and since this will be the only place on the roof where the nails will be directly exposed, and the last row of shingles under the decking.
You now have a better overview of the main steps of laying shingles on a roof. You may even understand why we recommend hiring a roofing repair company.